Sasaram is a city and a notified area in Rohtas district in the state of Bihar, India. Sasaram is the birthplace of the Afghan king Sher Shah Suri, who ruled over Delhi, much of northern India, what is now Pakistan, and eastern Afghanistan for five years, after defeating the Mughal Emperor Humayun. Many of Sher Shah Suri’s governmental practices were adopted by the Mughals and the British Raj including taxation, administration, and the building of a paved road from Kabul to Bengal.
Sher Shah Suri’s 122 feet (37 m) red sandstone tomb, built in the Indo-Afghan style stands in the middle of an artificial lake at Sasaram. It borrows heavily from the Lodhi style, and was once covered in blue and yellow glazed tiles indicating an Iranian influence. The massive free standing dome also has an aesthetic aspect of the Buddhist stupa style of the Mauryan period. The tomb of Sher Shah’s father Hasan Khan Suri is also at Sasaram, and stands in the middle of green field at Sherganj, which is known as Sukha Rauza. About a kilometer to the North West of Sher Shah’s tomb lies the incomplete and dilapidated tomb of his son and successor, Islam Shah Suri. Sasaram also has a baulia, a pool used by the emperor’s consorts for bathing.
The fort of Sher Shah Suri at Rohtasgarh is in Sasaram. This fort has a history dating back to the 7th century AD. It was built by Raja Harishchandra in the name of his son Rohitashwa, son of illustrious king Harishchandra, known for his truthfulness. It houses the Churasan temple, Ganesh temple, diwan-e khas, diwan-e-aam, and various other structures dating back to different centuries. The fort also served as the headquarters of Raja Man Singh during his reign as the governor of Bihar and Bengal under the regime of Akbar. The Rohtas fort in Bihar should not be confused with another fort of the same name, near Jhelum, Punjab, in what is now Pakistan. The Rohtas fort in Sasaram was also built by Sher Shah Suri, during the period when Humayun was exiled from Hindustan.
There is a temple of Goddess Tarachandi, two miles to the south, and an inscription of Pratap Dhawal on the rock close to the temple of Chandi Devi. Hindus in large number assemble to worship the goddess. Dhuwan Kund, located about 36 km. South-West of this town, is one of the attractive tourist places and it can be developed as a beautiful natural site. Gupta Dham is also an attractive tourist and religious place, situated in the Chenari Block of this district. This also can be developed as beautiful natural site. This place is a famous centre of Shiva-Aradhana. Hindus in large numbers assemble here to worship the Lord Shiva. The two waterfalls have enough capacity to generate 50-100 MW of electricity, if utilized properly.
There are several monuments near Sasaram, the headquarter of Rohtas district, inclusing Akbarpur, Deomarkandey, Rohtas Garh, Shergarh, TaraChandi, Dhuwan Kund, Gupta Dham, Bhaluni Dham, Historical Gurudwara and Tombs of Chandan Shaheed, Hasan Khan Sur, Sher Shah, Salim Sah and Alawal Khan.
Rohtas, south of Sasaram, is known to have been the residence of one Satyawadi Raja Harischandra, named for his son, Rohitashwa. Sasaram is also famous for the Samrat Ashok pillar (one of the thirteen laghu shilalekh), situated in a small cave of Kaimur hill, near Chandan Shaheed.
Samadhi of Shree Shree 1008 Shree Swami Parmeshwara Nand Ji Maharaj, also known as Adwait Ashram, Dakshin Kutia, Situated in Parampuri (Raipur Chaur) 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from Sasaram. It (Adwait Ashram) has nearabout 24 branches over Country in many states. The headquarters is in Sasaram, and is also known as Navlakha Ashram.
Babu Nishan Singh who was the general of Babu Kunwar Singh’s army fighting against the British during the 1857 GADAR freedom struggle, came from Sasaram. Jainath Bhawan is a grand mansion built by a magistrate named Babu Harihar Prasad Verma, and his wife Uma Devi Verma, in 1945. The mansion is named for Babu Jainath Prasad, who was a Zamindar and the first lawyer to practice in English[vague]. A secondary school founded by Uma Devi Verma, named Harihar Uma Madhyamik Vidyalaya, still runs at the Meyari Bazar, although it is now administered by the government.